What are subdomains? Subdomains are just another way of cataloging website names. We know that domain names are just a disguise for IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. The great thing about subdomains is that you keep that clarity of your top level domain such as uchicago.edu but you can clarify further with subdomains. In this case you may use a department of the university so you could have science.uchicago.edu. This is what a subdomain looks like.
When you are looking for web hosting providers and you think that you want subdomains you need to make sure that the provider will do domain name registration and then they need to have the support for subdomains. This is not a given so be wise. You must ask about it and be clear.
Subdomains can become much more complex and mean something different if you are dealing with a network of servers. Most people will not need a subdomain in this way but you may talk to your web host provider to see what they offer.