Glossary Terms

The TLD designated for the air transport industry, available only to aviation community members.

The .biz TLD is a designated suffix for businesses. Domains using the .biz extension must be used for business or commercial use.

hort for .commercial. Domain names with the .com extension are the most popular and can be purchased by any individual or business in any country.

This TLD is available to cooperatives, cooperative service organizations and wholly owned subsidiaries of cooperatives.

.info domains are available to the general public.

This TLD is available only to museums, museum organizations and individual members of the museum profession.

Available to the general public, .name email addresses are listed as or Web sites are listed as

Short for .network. This domain extension was originally designed to be used by technical web sites. However, this extension can be registered by anyone.

Short for .organization. Originally for non-profit organizations that did not fit under the .com or .net extension. However any individual or business may now register a .org domain name.

The .pro suffix was created for certified professionals including lawyers, doctors and accountants.

Country-code top-level domain. Available exclusively for residents of the United States and its territories.

Generic top-level domain name. Stands for “Web site.”

Account Manager
Web hosts and registrars usually provide clients with an account manager where they can alter password, contact and billing information. Domain name registration account managers are especially useful in keeping track of domain expiration dates.

A formal declaration by a VeriSign-designated approving authority that a particular information system, professional or other employee or contractor, or organization is approved to perform certain duties and to operate in a specific security mode, using a prescribed set of safeguards. ICANN insures that domain registrars are operating in a upstanding manner. Look for ICANN accredited registrars.

Accredited Registrar
About Registrar Accreditation- “ICANN is a technical coordination body. Our primary objective is ensuring the stability of the Internet’s system of assigned names and numbers. This objective is furthered by the requirement that every business desiring to become a registrar with direct access to ICANN-designated top-level domains must first become accredited for this purpose by ICANN.”

Additional Servers
Any name servers, aside from the primary and secondary name servers listed on the Domain Name Registration Agreement, that will be available to resolve a particular domain name to its corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) number(s).

Administrative Contact
When registering a domain name, the administrative contact must be provided to the registrar when completing the registration form. The administrative contact is the individual who is responsible for acting as the primary contact. The administrative contact does not necessarily need to be able to manage the technical aspects of the domain.

A name, usually short and easy to remember, that is translated into another name, usually long and difficult to remember. DNS does aliasing. It is a lot easier to remember than

Anonymous FTP
A File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an Internet standard for transferring files between computers. Most FTP transfers require you log in to the system supplying the information by using an authorized username and password. However, a variation known as “anonymous FTP” lets you log in as “anonymous,” i.e., you don’t need a username or a password.

APNIC – Asia-Pacific Network Information Center
APNIC is a collaborative effort consisting of national Network Information Centers (NICs) and Internet Service Providers within the Asian-Pacific region. The APNIC acts as a regional Internet Registry, providing the allocation of Internet Protocol (IP) address space to the Asian-Pacific region.

The process of evaluating a domain name and determining its market value.

Auto Responder
An automated program that acknowledges receipt of an email message and then sends back a response to the sender of the email letting them know the email was received. Autoresponders are great because they provide feedback with no further action on your part after the initial set up.

An automated program that extracts information from the fields in the registration forms. The auto-parser will detect errors or incomplete information in the registration forms. Upon receipt of complete and correct registration forms the auto-parser enters the appropriate data into Network Solutions’ domain name database.

The amount of data that can be transmitted at a given moment to a server. The higher your bandwidth the larger amount of traffic your site can handle at one time.

Billing Contact
When registering a domain name, the billing contact must be provided to the registrar when completing the registration form. The billing contact is responsible for receiving the bills and paying the registrar any fees.

Bulk Registration
When registering multiple domain names many registrars will offer bulk registration where you can register them all at once instead of individually.

ccTLD – Country Code Top Level Domain
Each country has a unique domain extension, usually a two letter abbreviation for the country. IANA is the organization responsible for overseeing the ccTLDs. ex. .us .ca .jp

Short for Common Gateway Interface, a small script that processes data taken from the user such as from a form application or guestbook entry.

Contact Record
In the case of many registries, contact information for technical, billing and administrative purposes are maintained in their database. It is important to keep your contact records updated to ensure that billing and renewal can proceed without problems.

Control Panel
a control panel is a privately accessed web based management tool.

A file or data item left on your computer by a server or other system you’ve connected to. They are most commonly used to allow the server to record information about what screens you’ve already seen and any personalizing information you’ve supplied. Many users find this an invasion of Privacy, as few systems tell you they are collecting and recording data. There are a number of “anti-cookie” software that automatically erase any such data between visits to your site.

Country Code
A standard two-letter abbreviation for the name of a country. It is used with domain names with locations outside the United States.

Country Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD)
Each country has a unique domain extension, usually a two letter abbreviation for the country. IANA is the organization responsible for overseeing the ccTLDs.

CPA – Cost Per Action
Cost per action for banner ads. This is the best type of rate to pay for banner advertisements, and the worst type of rate to charge. Advertisers only pay for the visitors who click on their banner and then sign up, fill out a form, or purchase something on their website. This is most common for Affiliate Programs. My opinion is this type of payment arrangement is already an endangered species, and will soon become extinct.

CPL – Cost Per Lead
The cost an advertiser pays per lead. This is a very common method of selling advertising. A lead can be anything from an e-mail address for a newsletter to a complete survey that needs to be completely filled out and verified in order to get credit. CPL prices can range greatly depending on the program.

A crawler is much like a spider except it is programmed to constantly surf the web, following any and all links it comes across. As it visits new websites, it checks its own database to see if the site is listed. If the site is already listed, it makes note of any changes and calculates a search engine ranking for the site. If the site has not been previously listed, the crawler will record all important information, add the website to the database, and assign a ranking to it.

Cross Linking
When a group of domains that are most often owned by the same individual inner links to each other. This is often for the purpose of increasing its popularity with search engines.

Custom web design
Custom web design involves hiring a professional website designer to create a website layout, complete with fonts, images, logos and pages to suit your website’s needs.

The illegal act of buying up domain names and “sitting” on them with the intent of making a large profit off the sell. Cyber squatters will often buy out large quantities of names, trademarks, or highly marketable names to try to make a buck or prevent others from lawful use of the name.

The illegal act of buying up domain names and “sitting” on them with the intent of making a large profit off the sell. Cybersquatters will often buy out large quantities of names, trademarks, or highly marketable names to try to make a buck or prevent others from lawful use of the name.

Database File
The file from which a primary master name server loads zone data.

The process of removing a domain name from the zone files for the top level domains. When a domain name is deactivated, the Domain Name System (DNS) will no longer have the information needed to resolve the domain name to its corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) number(s), effectively disabling the domain name as a tool for locating the related computers or organizations. Network Solutions refers to this status as being on “Hold.” The domain name record, however, remains in Network Solutions’ domain name database.

Dead Link
An internet link which doesn’t lead to a page or site, probably because the server is down or the page has moved or no longer exists.

Deep Linking
Linking to content buried deep within a website. These links are referred to as “deep” because they are often two or more directories deep within a website.

A pre-set way that a computer performs certain operations unless a user instructs it to do otherwise.

To instruct a server in how to resolve a domain or sub-domain.

The process of removing a domain name and its corresponding record from the Domain Name System (DNS) and InterNIC’ domain name database. A deleted domain name cannot be used to locate computers on the Internet and will be made available for other parties to register on a first-come, first-served basis. A domain name may be deleted at the request of the domain name registrant, as a result of non-payment of fee, or due to circumstances particular to individual cases.

Direct Hit
A system which tries to measure the relevance of each site by noting which sites are clicked on most and how much time users spend in each site. HotBot uses Direct Hit in order to determine the search engine ranking of web sites. Teoma has now purchased the technology behind Direct Hit.

Searchable subject guide organized by topical subject or geographical region and consisting of web sites that have been reviewed and compiled by human editors. Directories are often provided as a browsable alternative to the searchable indexes of search engines. Examples: Yahoo!, The Open Directory Project and Looksmart are some of the most popular directories on the web.

DNS – Domain Name System
The DNS plays a large role in making the internet what we know it as today. The DNS is a model for tracking other machines that contain web sites and their numeric IP addresses, then it translates the domain names ( into from name to IP. When a domain name is purchased it is assigned an IP address by which it is recognized by other machines in the DNS server.

Domain Appraising
The process of evaluating a domain name and determining its market value.

Domain Host
See also web host. The business or registrar responsible for a domain name’s server and keeping their web site “live.”

Domain Name
Controlled by the world-wide organization called ICANN, domain names are obtained on a first-come basis, and are used to identify your unique web site (For instance, Most common are the suffixes: .com, .org, and .net. However there are a large number of new suffixes giving a lot more name options. A top level domain can be obtained by paying an annual registration fee to a domain registrar such as Fees range from under $10 a year to $30 a year. Some web hosting providers such as offer a domain name as part of the monthly hosting fee.

Domain Name Dispute
Disputes that arise over conflicting positions as to who has the right to register a specific domain name. Disputes often occur when a domain name that is the same, or similar to, a valid registered trademark is registered by a party that is not the owner of the registered trademark. A central factor in domain name disputes is the fact that domain names at the same level of the hierarchy must be unique. You might want to consult InterNIC’ Domain Name Dispute Policy.

Domain Name Registration
The first step in building a web site is registering a domain name. Whether you register your name with a registrar or your web host (who will register your domain name through a registrar for you) is merely a matter of convenience and preference. When a name is registered you are purchasing the right to the use of that name for the agreed amount of years at registration, usually 1-10 years. No one else may use that name with your specified extension (.com, .net) until you either let the name expire or you sell it to someone else.

Domain Servers
Domain Servers, or Domain Name Servers, play a large role in making the internet what we know it as today. The DNS is a model for tracking other machines that contain web sites and their numeric IP addresses, then it translates the domain names ( into from name to IP. When a domain name is purchased it is assigned an IP address by which it is recognized by other machines in the DNS server.

Domain Transfer
A domain name once registered for 60 days with a registrar may be transferred to another registrar. This transfer means the new registrar will now maintain the pertinent information regarding the domain and the registrant.

Dot or “.”
The top of the hierarchy or root in the Domain Name System (DNS).

Dropped Domain
A previously registered domain name whose registration was allowed to lapse by the original owner – often times because the registration fees went unpaid. A dropped domain is again available for registration by the public.

Dynamic Content
Content that is updated frequently and is fresh and relevant for its appropriate audience. Dynamic content can include content served as a flat HTML page that is updated many times a day, content that includes sophisticated Javascript or Shockwave for an interactive experience, or content that is generated from either a file-system or a database using server-side includes, CGI scripts, Java servlets, or an application server.

The catchy name for online business. E-commerce is quickly becoming the way to do business. E-commerce includes buying and selling of goods and services via the Internet.

Electronic mail, electronic files that are transferred quickly from an outbox on one computer, to the inbox of another.

Email POP Account
POP (Post Office Protocol) refers to a an e-mail account on the web host’s e-mail server. Each separate account allows a different email name and mailbox such as:, or

Entry Page
The page by which visitors enter your site.

A third party service that will essentially hold on to the buyer’s payment when selling a domain name, thereby protecting both the buyer and seller.

Expired Domain
A domain that has not been reregistered by the owner in the grace period allotted eventually becomes expired, or unusable by the owner, and is placed into the pool of available names again.

FAQ – Frequently Asked Question
Short for frequently asked question. Documents that answer and list the most common inquiries on a particular subject.

The process of redirecting email from one inbox to another (email forwarding), or redirecting traffic received at one web address to another. (URL forwarding)

Frames are a technique used in web pages to divide the page into multiple windows, where each window is called a frame and can contain its own separate page. The advantage of frames is that one window can be scrolled or changed while other windows remain fixed for such purposes as keeping a menu in view all the time. The disadvantage is that not all browsers support them.

Free Hosting
A hosting plan which is provided at no cost to the user in exchange for allowing the host to run ad banners or pop-up ads on your web pages. Some free hosting plans do not use ads, but require you to pay an up-front one time fee, or purchase a domain name.

FTP – File Transfer Protocol
After building your web site on your home computer, you must upload the data to your web hosting server. Generally this is done with a program called FTP. Microsoft Front Page can be uploaded without FTP if it is supported by your host.

Fully-qualified Domain Name
A fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) is that portion of an Internet Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that fully identifies the server program that an Internet request is addressed to. The FQDN includes the top-level domain name, the second-level domain name and any other levels. An FQDN should be sufficient to determine a unique Internet address for any host on the Internet. The prefix “http://” added to the fully-qualified domain name completes the URL.

Currently the most important spidering search engine, Google is dominating the search engine market. Google is an Internet search engine that ranks web pages in a list of hits by giving weight to the links that reference a specific page. It can be found at

gTLD – Generic Top Level Domain
The top level domain represents a category, and is found at the last part of a domain name. For example the .com in, is the gTLD. The three completely unrestricted gTLDs are .com .net and .org.

An authorization and authentication] scheme developed by InterNIC that helps protect domain name records, contact records, and host records from unauthorized updates. Guardian is available free of charge and helps support secure registration transactions in an automated environment. It also provides flexible security mechanisms that can accommodate changes in organizations, personnel, and security needs.

Hidden Text
Text on a web page which is visible to search engine spiders but not visible to human visitors (e.g. the text is the same or very similar color as the background of the web page, extremely small font is used, usage of multiple TITLE tags, the text in HTML comment, etc.). As this technique could artificially increase the relevancy of the web sites and was abused in the past it’s treated as spam on most search engines.

Hold Status
A domain name that has not been reregistered by its owner, but not yet in the pool of available names may be said to be on hold status.

A host is the company who actually provides the hardware, servers, backbone connections, backup system etc, where your web site is housed. It is their job to make sure your web site is available to site visitors on the world wide web around the clock. It is what you pay the monthly fee for.

Hosting Control Panel
is a privately accessed area of your web site that comes with your hosting. You use the user name and password you select at sign-up to accesss this area.

Hosting Plan
Currently the most important spidering search engine, Google is dominating the search engine market. Google is an Internet search engine that ranks web pages in a list of hits by giving weight to the links that reference a specific page. It can be found at

A hotlink is a clickable word, phrase or icon which will connect you to a selected website, or another page in the same website, also called a hyperlink.

HTML – Hypertext Markup Language
Web sites on the internet are stored or presented as documents which web browsers can interpret. These document files are designed using a specific tagging language.

A common connection point for devices in a network.

A hyperlink is a clickable word, phrase or icon which will connect you to a selected website, or another page in the same website, also called a hotlink.

An organization who oversees core internet infrastructure management parameters, including port assignments.

The not for profit organization responsible for managing the internet’s domain name system, including IP address space allocation.

Image Map
An image that contains more than one hyperlink on a Web page. Clicking different parts of the image links the user to other resources on another part of the Web page, a different Web page, or a file. Often, an image map, which can be a photograph, a drawing, or a composite of several different drawings or photographs, is used as a map to the resources that can be found on a particular Web site.

Inbound Links
A hypertext link to a particular page from elsewhere, bringing traffic to that page. Inbound links are counted to produce a measure of the page popularity. Searches for the inbound links to a page can be made on Altavista, Infoseek and Hotbot or with the Google Toolbar’s “backward links”.

Intellectual Property
Content of the human intellect deemed to be unique and original and to have marketplace value—and thus to warrant protection under the law. Intellectual property includes but is not limited to ideas; inventions; literary works; chemical, business, or computer processes; and company or product names and logos. Intellectual property protections fall into four categories: copyright (for literary works, art, and music), trademarks (for company and product names and logos), patents (for inventions and processes), and trade secrets (for recipes, code, and processes). Concern over defining and protecting intellectual property in cyberspace has brought this area of the law under intense scrutiny.

The Internet is the enormous collection of interconnected networks, connected using TCP/IP protocols. Probably the largest Wide Area Network in the world, the Internet connects tens of thousands of independent networks.

InterNIC was originally started as a joint effort between Network Solutions and AT&T, to perform many of the functions now performed by ICANN. The InterNIC is no longer functioning, but hosts an information site regarding domain name registrations.

Advertising creative placed in-between the origin website and the destination website, either physically or in time. Also called a pop-up window. The interstitial is analogous to the advertising inserts in the Sunday paper that usually go straight to the trash. Newer concepts called superstitials or metastitials attempt to be more acceptable to consumers by being less intrusive, subtle and more interesting with the use of rich media components such as video.

The bill for a domain name registration fee or renewal (re-registration) fee. Invoices are sent to the billing contact via both postal mail and email.

IP Address
A unique number given to each domain name that is used to specify hosts and networks. For example is an IP address.

IP Delivery
Also called cloaking, this technique presents different content depending on the IP address of the client. It is very difficult to view pages hidden using this technique, because the real page is only visible if your IP address is the same as (for example) a search engine’s spider.

IP Number
Every computer connected to the Internet has a unique number called an IP number, or Internet Protocol number. An IP number is like a name identifying that computer. It consists of four sections separated by dots. An example of an IP number is:

ISP – Internet Service Provider
Companies that provide access to the Internet for money. AOL with their mass marketing campaigns is a popular Internet Service Provider, or ISP.

A word that is entered into the search form or search “window” of an Internet search engine to search the Web for pages or sites about or including the keyword and information related to it. In SEO the placement of keywords on web sites is a growing science to discover what sites come up first for specific keywords.

Keyword Phrase
General term used to define a specific word phrase that best describes the main topic of a web page. Synonymous with a search phrase that a visitor enters into a search engine to find specific information.

Keyword Stuffing
The act of repeating keywords or keyword phrases excessively in body copy, hidden text, meta tags, or any other code on the site. Originally done in order to increase rankings in search engines, this tactic is now recognized and penalized by most of the major search engines.

Link Farm
A set of web pages that have been built for the sole purpose of increasing the number of incoming links to a web site. This is done in order to increase link popularity and search engine rankings. Link farms usually require a reciprocal link from sites seeking listings. Link farms are a known spam tactic and sites that participate in them are likely to be penalized or banned from the major search engines.

Link Popularity
The number of other related Web sites that link to your site. In terms of search engine positioning, quality links are more important than the number of links. Search engines are now nullifying or penalizing sites using some link farms and link exchanges such as FFA (Free For All) sites popular with mass search engine submission programs.

Link Rot
A colloquial expression referring to the tendency of hyperlinks to “decay” as their destination sites are purged from their host servers. Users experience “link rot” as hyperlinks that lead nowhere, or that prompt “Error 404: file not found” messages.

Instructions that connect one program to another, providing continuity of executions between the programs

Listservs are the most common kind of maillist.

The act of entering in your credentials, usually username and password, to connect to a computer system or web site. Also the non-secret account name used to gain access to a computer system.

Mail list – Maillist
An automated system that allows people to send email to one address where the message is then copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the maillist. A common maillist is Listserv. Often abused and used to send spam, or unsolicited email.

One of the authentication schemes used by InterNIC. In the mail-from scheme, the email address that is used to send a modification request is compared to the email addresses that are on file for the individuals or organizations who are listed as authorized points of contact/agent for the domain name, the contact, or the host. The mail-from option under the Guardian] plan allows the contact to specify two email addresses, rather than just one, which can help avoid problems with authentication later if one of the email addresses should change.

1024 kilobytes or one million bytes equals a megabyte.

Merchant Account
An account set up by a bank which allows a business to accept credit cards and deposits collected funds into the business checking account. Merchant providers assume a risk by allowing other businesses to accept credit cards under their name, and rely on those businesses to deliver the products or services to the customer as agreed.

Miva Merchant
Commonly used merchant account software used to allow hosting clients to accept credit cards on their sites. Ecommerce hosts often come with Miva Merchant ready to go.

Modify is a function where contact information or DNS information can be updated to reflect new changes pertaining to a domain name. Administrative and Technical Contacts have the ability to modify domain name information.

NAK – No Acknowledgement
A none acknowledgement (disapproval) from an authorized point of contact/agent for a domain name record, contact record, or host record that a requested modification should not be completed. When a modification request is received from a source that is not an authorized contact, the request will be rejected and a message will be sent to the listed contacts asking them to ACK (Acknowledge) or NAK (disapprove) the modification.

Name Server
A name server, or domain name server, maintains the cross-reference between domain names and their corresponding IP addresses. Name servers are used so that people don’t have to remember long numerical IP addresses.

Name Server Lookup
One can check which name server their domain is housed by performing a name server lookup. Every ip address is assigned two name servers that will vary depending on where the name is registered.

Name Service
Providing individuals or organizations with domain name-to-Internet Protocol (IP) number resolution by maintaining and making available the hardware, software, and data needed to perform this function. Many Internet Service Providers (ISPs) operate name server and provide their customers with name service when they register a domain name. Most individuals are not in a position to operate a name server on their own and will need to make arrangements for name service with an ISP or some other person or organization.

This is the fee you pay to your registrar when registering for a domain name.

NIC Handle
When you register a domain with InterNIC, they give you a special ID called a handle. When you register subsequent sites it’s a good idea to use the initial NIC handle, or else they’ll assign you another one. It only matters when you want to update registration information, it allows you to make changes in one place instead of having to change the registration individually for every domain you have.

The process of informing individuals and organizations who are listed as authorized points of contact/agent on a domain name record, contact record, or host record that the registry has received a request to modify information in one of the records with which the authorized contacts are associated. All notifications are sent via email to the email addresses that are on file with InterNIC for the authorized points of contact. The notification process provides each authorized point of contact with the opportunity to acknowledge the requested modification with the response “ACK” or to refuse to acknowledge the requested modification, with the response “NAK.” Notification is intended to keep all those involved with a domain name or host informed of actions that can affect the operation and functioning of the Host (Name Server).

Scrambling all symbolic code information such that no problem-domain information remains.

On Hold
A domain name that has not been reregistered by its owner, but not yet in the pool of available names may be said to be on hold status.

Open Source
Open source software is distributed with the source code freely available for alteration and customization. The idea behind open source software is the exact opposite of the old “too many cooks spoil the broth” adage. Theoretically, through the collective work of many programmers, the resulting software can become more useful and free of holes and bugs. One of the most well-known pieces of open source software is Linux.

Open Text
A large business-only directory. The URL is

The changes that are made to the content and code of a web site in order to increase it’s rankings in the results pages of search engines and directories. Examples: These changes may involve rewriting body copy, altering Title or Meta tags, removal of Frames or Flash content, and the seeking of incoming links.

Outsourcing, or off shore hiring, refers to the employment of individuals living outside the United States by companies in the US to technology related fields for competitive wages.

Page Jacking
Stealing the design, content, and layout of a web page buy copying verbatim the source code.

Page View
Technically, the accessing of a web page. Often used to determine the popularity of a site, it refers to the number of times a page has been accessed. A hit, in contrast, counts the number of times, all elements of a page (each graphic or photo could be one hit) have been accessed.

If you purchase a top level domain, but don’t have a web site built, you can establish the name on the internet by “parking” it at a web host. Some domain registration services provide this as a basic service.

Pop Under
The less obtrusive form of the pop-up window, the pop-under advertisement shows up behind the browser window.

A Web site or service that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as email, forums, search engines, and on-line shopping malls. The first Web portals were online services, such as AOL, that provided access to the Web, but by now most of the traditional search engines have transformed themselves into Web portals to attract and keep a larger audience.

Search engines and directories order web sites so that the most relevant web sites appear first in search engine results for a particular query. This process is called search engine positioning. This term is also used to describe various techniques used by search engine (web site) optimizers to help the web site rank higher in search engines.

PR – Page Rank
The name given to Google’s link popularity measuring system. PR is determined by measuring both the quantity and quality of incoming links to a web site and is a major factor in the Google ranking algorithm. Also Known As: Page Rank

Primary Server
The designation of “primary” means that this name server will be used first and will be relied upon before any of the other name servers that may be listed on the Domain Name Registration Agreement.

The process whereby the name servers throughout the world have updated their records for a specific domain. For example, if you move your domain from one host to another, it will take around 24 hours or so for the new address to broadcast everywhere. During that 24 hour period, the traffic is decreasing at the old location and increasing at the new location.

PSA – Public Service Announcement
The abbreviation for Public Service Announcement, which is a spot containing information of interest to the general public, and posted by the web site at no charge.

A term used to describe the position of a site in a search result done on a keyword phrase. Often used in a phrase, such as, ‘top search search engine ranking’, this would relate to a site showing up in the first 10 or 20 results from a search done on a particular phrase.

Repeating the search engine registration process one or more times for the same page or site. Under certain circumstances, this is regarded with suspicion by the search engines, as it could indicate that someone is experimenting with spamming techniques. However, occasional re-submission of changed pages is not a problem.

Refresh Tag
A meta tag that will let you either periodically refresh the current page or switch to another page. It is formatted like this: The above meta tag will switch to the URL after 10 seconds. Change the number to change the time delay, or delete it to make the change immediate. Delete the URL to make the refresh occur in the current page.

The individual or business who registers a domain name. The registrant is accountable for the fees and conditions specified by the registrar.

Registrant Name Change Agreement
A Registrant Name Change Agreement (RNCA) is a document by which a domain name registrant changes its name, as it appears in InterNIC’ records. Specifically, the RNCA must be used if the Registrant wishes to: Correct a typographical or other minor error in the Registrant’s name; Change the Registrant’s legal name; or Transfer the domain name to another party.

A business that is given permission to register domain names on behalf of anyone wishing to obtain one. Registrars must be accredited by ICANN, and are only given permission to registrar certain top level domains. Registrars collect fees, maintain record information, and manage registration, re-registration, and expiration of domains.

Registration Term
The number of years (from 1-10) that a domain name is registered for is referred to as the registration term.

A database that contains information about every registered domain name. Different registries exist for different TLDs. When you register a domain name, all the information for that domain, including registrant, name, expiration, etc. is stored in the registry’s database.

Registry Fees
All TLD Registries require initial registration fees as well as annual renewal fees but it is the Registrar who collects these fees plus some service fee. Renewal fees are available in one to nine year increments after the initial registration period for the .Com, .Net, .Org .Biz and .Info TLD’s.

When the original domain name registration period is over the owner will be given the opportunity to renew the domain name for subsequent years. This is called a renewal, and is done through the registrant’s current registrar.

A company/person that sells domain names through registry services provided by an ICANN approved registrar.

The term used to describe the process by which domain names are matched with corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) numbers. “Resolution” is accomplished by a combination of computers and software, referred to as name servers that use the data in the Domain Name System to determine which IP numbers correspond to a particular domain name.

A program that automatically surfs the Web. Search engines use robots to surf the Web and catalog different Web sites in their databases. This allows the Web pages to be found when someone performs a search. Robots are commonly referred to as bots and spiders.

In a web site, the root directory is the root for the site, NOT the root directory for the disk (usually C:\). The server root is the highest level directory that is read by the server, and therefore the highest level directory that can be accessed by remote browsers. The root is set by the server software, and all directories for the site must be subdirectories of the root. In a domain name- The top of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy. Often referred to as the “dot.”

The top of the Domain Name System hierarchy. Often referred to as the “dot.”

Root Server
A machine that has the software and data needed to locate name servers that contain authoritative data for the top level domains (e.g., root, servers know which name servers contain authoritative data for .com, .net, .fr, .uk. etc.). The root servers are, in fact, name server, and contain authoritative data for the very top of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy. Currently, technical specifications limit the number of root servers to 13. These machines are located around the globe, in the U.S., the U.K., Sweden, and Japan.

Root Web
The FrontPage web that is provided by the server by default. To access the root web, you supply the URL of the server without specifying a page name. FrontPage is installed with a default root web named <root web>. All FrontPage webs are contained by the root FrontPage web.

rTLD – Restricted Top Level Domain
A top-level domain, such as .biz, .gov, .museum, .name, and .pro, that is only available to registrants who meet certain criteria.

Search Term
A single word or group of words used in a search engine document query. It also refers to the strategic keywords used to optimize Web page content.

Second Level Domain
In the Domain Name System (DNS), the next lower level of the hierarchy underneath the top level domains. In a domain name, that portion of the domain name that appears immediately to the left of the top level domain. For example, the networksolutions in Second level domain names are often descriptive and have come to be used increasingly to represent businesses and other commercial concerns on the Internet.

Secondary Server
A name server that will be used in addition to and as a backup for the primary name server for a domain name. Names and IP addresses of secondary servers are provided by registrars when they register names. Both a primary and secondary server name server are required.

A continuous period of time during which a user’s browser is viewing Web pages or a Web application within the same server or domain.

Unwanted, unsolicited email

SRS – Shared Registration System
The Shared Registration System is The central system for all accredited registrars to access and register and control domain names.

SSL – Secure Sockets Layer
Short for Secure Sockets Layer, a protocol developed by Netscape to handle and protect confidential/sensitive information required for e-commerce transactions (like credit card numbers). SSL address usually begin with ‘https’.

Stop words
In database searching, “stop words” are small and frequently occurring words like and, or, in, of that are often ignored when keyed as search terms. Sometimes putting them in quotes ” ” will allow you to search them. Sometimes + immediately before them makes them searchable.

Typically known as a “domain within a domain”, subdomains are individual Web addresses built upon a pre-existing domain name (such as As a reseller, you will have the option of assigning subdomains to clients if they do not choose to have a domain name.

Technical Contact
When you register a domain name you must specify a technical contact for that domain. This individual will be responsible for any technical issues regarding the domain name. The technical contact may be the same as the billing or administrative contact.

Templates or website templates are premade website designs that are alterable by the purchaser. Template fonts, colors, and images are usually easily changeable, but the general layout remains the same.

Tiny Text
Basically the same concept as hidden text, tiny text is a technique used by search engine optimizers to artificially increase the relevancy of their site by placing very small text on the page, usually invisible to the human eye, but readable by search engines through the code.

TLD – Top Level Domain
TLD is the last part of the domain name. For example, the .com in is the top level domain. (‘mysite’ would be the second-level domain)

A toolbar is a bar that contains buttons for the most commonly-used commands in an application. Typically, a toolbar appears under a menubar.

A word, phrase, graphic image, or other symbol used to represent a business, commercial, or other organization. Trademarks are used to identify the organization to the public and to consumers and are intended to identify the organization’s products and services as well. To be recognized as a trademark, the word, phrase, graphic image, or symbol must be registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (in the United States) or, in the case of other countries, with the appropriate authority for that country.

The visitors to a web page or web site. Also refers to the number of visitors, hits, accesses etc. over a given period.

A domain name once registered for 60 days with a registrar may be transferred to another registrar. This transfer means the new registrar will now maintain the pertinent information regarding the domain and the registrant.

Under Construction Page
A term used to describe a Web page or Website that is still being developed.

Unique Visitor
Website traffic measurement where each person’s individual IP address visiting a particular website is counted only once, regardless of how many times they visit that particular website in a given day.

URL – Uniform Resource Locator
Also called the web address. A URL may include the http:// or just the www at the beginning. URL is an identifier for locating objects on the internet.

URL Submission
A request to a search engine using online forms that a URL be indexed.

Virtual Domain
When you are supporting multiple domains on a single server, each domain being served is often referred to as a virtual domain. Different server software implements or defines virtual domains in different ways. The strict definition of virtual domain is when a single IP address is shared between multiple domains.

Web Host
A business that share its servers with clients so their web sites can be accessible at any given time A networked computer dedicated to providing a certain kind of service. Usually refers to a computer that stores the website files and has a web server running on it.

Web Log
A Web log, for the uninitiated, is a popular and fairly personal content form on the Internet. A person’s Web log is almost like an open diary. It chronicles what a person wants to share with the world on an almost daily basis. Commonly known by its slang name, blog.

Web Page
A document containing text and graphics that can be accessed through a web browser on the internet.

Web Site
A document containing text and graphics that can be accessed through a web browser on the internet.

Who Is
Whois is both a database and a tool. A whois database is maintained by a domain registry which contains pertinent information about domain names and their registrants (technical contacts, expiration date, etc.) Whois is also a tool used for accessing the various databases. Registrars offer the use of the whois tool to see if the name you would like is still available.

Zone Contact
A section of the total domain name space that is represented by the data stored on a particular name server. The name server has authority over that particular zone – or the particular section of the domain name space – described by that data.

Zone File
The group of files that reside on the domain host or name server. The zone file designates a domain, its sub-domains, and mail server.